Effects of nicotine

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It is clearly established that tobacco and nicotine has increased mortality and cardiovascular events (CV), however, the price of smoking is often neglected. Behavioral interventions and stop assisting treatments are effective and do not increase the risk of CV events when used over a specified period. E-cigarettes (or vaporettes) contain potentially cardiotoxic substances but lower […]



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Retinopathy refers to any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment. Often it refers to a retinal vascular disease, or the damage to the vessels of the retina caused by abnormal blood flow. It can be broadly categorized into proliferative and non-proliferative types. By examining the retina, the light-sensitive layer […]