Alzheimer‘s disease

Alzheimer‘s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes disorders of memory, thinking, and behavior and is not part of the normal aging process. It is caused by the decrease in the amount of the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, due to the death of cholinergic neurons.

Signs and symptoms

Alzheimer‘s disease starts with a progressive loss of memory and later other symptoms. About 8 – 10 years pass since the beginning of the disease and the death,

Early stage

A patient is forgetting the new events that happen in their everyday life in the early stage of Alzheimer‘s disease. Those cognitive disturbances are starting to get in the way of doing normal activities, so a patient is unable to regulate their finances, drive a vehicle or do chores around the house. Some patients are aware of their disease, while some of them don‘t know that they are ill. Change of the environment, such are new places or new situations are making them uncomfortable, as they have a problem with spatial orientation.

Moderate stage

In this stage of the Alzheimer‘s disease patients are unable to live and take care of themselves. Besides the problems with memory that now become more prominent even for earlier memories and knowledge, new cognitive disorders such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and reduced ability for judging and reasoning may occur.

Aphasia – an inability to comprehend or formulate speaking (difficulty speaking)

Apraxia – a loss of the ability to do voluntary movements or tasks including dressing up, maintenance of personal hygiene, washing, eating or solving simple puzzles

Agnosia – a loss of the ability to recognize people, even their children or a spouse

Patients in this stage of the disease are not able to do simple calculations, remember the date, they stop caring about themselves and about people who are close to them, acting apathetic and indifferent, sometimes even aggressive or restless. Because of the impaired spatial orientation, they can‘t even find a way to their homes.

Alzheimer's disease

Advanced stage

Patients in the advanced stage of Alzheimer‘s disease lose the ability to reason and think. They can be upset, get up in the evening, disturb their family, wander in random locations, or walk on the same spot repeatedly. During that time they lose normal inhibitions, so they may remove their clothes in front of the people, act aggressively or showing other signs of change in behavior. Personality can drastically change, so people close to them can gain an impression that this is a stranger. Patients ignore the need for food which leads to loss of weight.

End-stage

In the end-stage of the Alzheimer‘s disease patients become bedbound in the fetal position, unable to control urination and defecation reflexes. They die from the complication associated with immobilization such as septicemia, pneumonia, lung embolism, urinary infections or infections of pressure ulcers, not from the disease on itself.

Pharmacological treatment

The pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer‘s disease is based on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with central effects in monotherapy in the early or moderate stage of the disease or NMDA receptor inhibitors in monotherapy or in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in moderate to advanced and end-stage of the disease.

Sage tea

sage tea

Sage

Sage (Salvia officinalis), is a perennial shrub that belongs to the mint (Lamiaceae) family and it is most commonly grown for its aromatic leaves used as a tea. Sage stalks can grow upright or on the ground, forming a dense woody arrangement with broad, elliptical, silvery-green leaves alternately arranged on the stems. Sage flowers can be blue, pink or white.

This plant usually grows 40-70 cm (16 – 28 in) in height and can live for 15-20 years, though it is usually replaced after 4-5 years in gardens when it already becomes woody.

History of sage

Because sage is one of the oldest and most important medicinal plants, all ancient medical texts have it in its contents. In ancient times, sage was considered a cure for almost all diseases, used to decrease body temperature, treat headache, regulate pain in the mouth, throat and respiratory tract; for inflammation of the urinary tract and bladder. It has also been used to treat inflammation of the intestines, stomach, liver, gallbladder and urinary tract.

The ancient Romans considered it a sacred plant so they would perform a certain ritual before harvesting. They used special ceremonial knives that had no iron in them to avoid a reaction with sage. The sage collectors had to wear completely clean clothes and to have clean feet. Before the beginning of the harvest, it was necessary to make sacrifices in the form of food.

Sage tea

Sage tea

Sage has many medicinal properties. It is a stimulant, diuretic, and expectorant; it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and also serves as an appetite enhancer. Because of these characteristics, sage tea can provide many health benefits.

Sage tea has an antimicrobial property which can help eliminate the bacteria that cause dental caries, and this effect in combination with astringent action provides an excellent treatment for mouth and throat pain.

Sage tea effects

Antioxidant effect

Antioxidants act as cleaners who remove free radicals of metabolism and other environmental toxins such as smoke and pesticides that retain themselves in the organism. They prevent tissue damage, slow down the signs of early aging and reduce the risk of conditions such as cancer and heart disease.

Impact on the mental state

Consuming sage tea improves memory, alertness and attention, while the use of sage leaves in aromatherapy promotes an exclusive state of alertness, not memory and attention. Sage tea can improve the process of learning, remembering and processing information in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. This action is prescribed to decrease in the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in memory-related processes whose amount is reduced in people with this disease.

Sage tea

Effect on cholesterol

Taking sage tea on a regular basis can reduce the concentration of triglyceride and “bad” LDL-cholesterol in the blood, and raise the amount of “good” HDL-cholesterol in people who have problems with dyslipidemia.

Effect on menopausal symptoms

During menopause, a woman’s body experiences a natural decline in estrogen, which can cause a number of unpleasant symptoms including hot flashes, excessive sweating, and irritability.

Sage tea has traditionally been used to reduce the symptoms of menopause because some sage compounds have estrogenic properties, which allows them to bind to specific receptors in the brain to improve memory and heal hot flashes and excessive sweating.

Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that is only found in humans in the lower part of the stomach and according to the World Health Organization, half of humanity is infected with this bacterium. If left untreated, helicoid bacteria can cause more serious medical conditions.

Helicobacter causes local inflammation of the gastric mucosa, that is, gastritis, and some people infected with this type of bacterium may develop ulcers on the duodenum and stomach. The bacterium thrives in the acidic environment of the stomach because it secretes the enzyme urease that breaks down urea and thus releases ammonia, which neutralizes gastric acid with its basic properties.


How is helicobacter transmitted?


Helicobacter is transmitted through dirty hands, which is why it is most prevalent in those parts of the world where there are unhygienic living conditions and are socially and economically underdeveloped. In these countries, it is estimated that up to 80% of the population is infected with this bacterium, while the percentage of infected persons in developed parts of the world is smaller and ranges between 20% and 50%. In addition, the channels through which this bacterium can be transmitted are contaminated food, ie unwashed fruits and vegetables, defective water. And it can also be transmitted by the mouth-to-mouth method from a person infected to a healthy person.

Helicobacter symptoms


Symptoms in some people who are infected with the bacterium are almost not manifested, so the bacterium can stay in the body for decades, even throughout life. In some people, certain symptoms may develop over time. However, this also depends on the immune properties of the organism. The most common symptoms are bloating, stomach pain, nausea, and indigestion, bad breath, and heartburn. Persons suffering from chronic gastritis do not feel anxious, but this changes if a stomach ulcer occurs. Appetite is reduced, which causes weight loss, and in some cases, blood in the stool may occur.


Chronic fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, depression can all be indirect indications that helicobacter has formed in the body. In some people, gastric disorders are much more pronounced, while in some people the intensity of indirect problems is higher.

Pain caused by Helicobacter

Proper nutrition

One of the basic things for eliminating helicobacter from the body is proper and reduced diet and changing lifestyle. It is necessary to have breakfast, lunch, and dinner at about the same time. The interval between meals should not be less than 3 hours and ideally around 4 hours. Avoid carbonated beverages, alcohol, especially white wine, coffee, sweets and sugars, refined foods (eg white flour products…), cooked, roasted and heavily spicy food. Consume green or black tea instead of coffee.

Against the increased secretion of acid, drink at least half an hour before breakfast unsweetened chamomile tea, flax seeds, thyme, sage, nettle, flacon (not hot at all). Strictly avoid tobacco smoke as it stimulates the secretion of gastric acid. Consume integral colostrum, oats and barley. Avoid fresh, white, wheat, cornbread.

Integral or red rice is recommended for lunch until 3 pm in combination with grilled vegetables or low-fat fish. Do not season soups or stews and cooked meals with strong spices that contain additives and flavor enhancers. Do not waste food. From dairy products, sour milk, young cheese and sometimes butter are recommended. Cow’s milk is prohibited. Legumes (beans, peas) should be consumed as a puree, but in principle be careful and limited bring them in.

Recommended vegetables are cabbage, broccoli, spinach, artichokes, kale, currant, arugula, beets, cauliflower. Tomatoes and tomato products, onions, cucumbers, green peppers, mushrooms should be avoided, or at least restricted, as they enhance the secretion of gastric acid. Consumption of fruits rich in raspberry, pear and plum fiber is advised. Cranberries and apples contain flavonoids – chemicals that can stop the growth of helicobacter. Cranberry juice is also rich in flavonoids. Consume fruits between 4 pm and 6 pm, every third or fourth day. Meat (veal, beef, chicken, rabbit…) or fish (sea or river) should be cooked or grilled. Avoid greasy and stronger types of meat or fish. The use of fresh and fried eggs is prohibited. Soft boiled eggs are recommended. Meals should be moderately warm and beverages moderately cold. Eat slowly and cook well.