Do you know how many people die from heart-related problems including heart failure? That’s right, it is a big concern to society, in particular for people over 65 years who are at much greater risk. Heart failure has a prevalence of over 5.8 million people in the USA and over 23 million people across the world. Moreover every year more than 550 000 new cases are being diagnosed. It is recognized as an epidemic, and it is associated with a higher risk of sudden death (mortality), increased morbidity, and healthcare expenses. If you have this condition don’t go desperate. Moreover, if you change your lifestyle, take your medicines regularly you can have a normal, fulfilling life.
Pathophysiology of heart failure
So what does heart failure stand for? It does not mean that the heart is utterly failing so it’s going to stop working suddenly. It means that the heart is at a special structural or functional condition so it can’t work properly. Moreover, it can’t provide enough oxygen and nutrients to peripheral tissues failing to pump enough blood or the atrial filling is being decreased. So the heart which is already in a problem must work even harder to accomplish the body requirements, and that causes the symptoms, minor or the very serious ones which can be life-threatening.
The organism can’t excrete all of the metabolism products which makes the stagnation of body fluids in the lungs and other body parts. There are many types of heart failures, but the main distinction is between the acute and the chronic one. While the chronic heart failure develops (CHF) throughout the time, eventually becoming more and more difficult, the acute heart failure (AHF) is extreme from the start, and it’s accompanied with much higher mortality. AHF often happens after a heart attack, because the body can’t compensate for the sudden loss of a heart function. In CHF, adapting mechanisms of the body help the heart at first, but over the time they’re doing more and more damage.
Compensation process of heart
The heart is trying to recompense the lack of tissue demands via increased heart contractions, increased heart pace, and through maintaining the blood in circulation. This leads to overstretching the muscle fibers, decreasing the amount of cardiac input, increasing the residual blood in ventricles and their overflow during the diastole.
While the myocardium is being over-strained trying to push the blood in the bloodstream to maintain the normal circulation, it engages the compensatory hypertrophy. Due to the weakness of heart muscle fibers a decompensation occurs developing the process of dystrophy and weakening it which leaves the myocardium in lack of a blood supply itself. In this stage, the neurohumoral mechanisms are being involved activating the sympathetic-adrenal and renin-angiotensin system which causes vasoconstriction in the periphery.
The most common causes of heart failure are:
High blood pressure (hypertension). If you have hypertension your heart is forced to work with a greater load which can lead to decreased strength in blood pumping and heart muscle cell deformation mentioned above.
Coronary heart disease (CHD). This disease causes the constriction of the vessels that supply the heart and thus are reducing the flow when the myocytes require oxygen which lowers their performance,
Problems with heart valves which include heart valve morphological changes; heart valve stenosis – when the lumen of the valve narrows and prevents the blood to flow through it, increasing the pressure; and the heart valve failure – when the valve completely closes, causing the blood to revert its direction.
Cardiomyopathy. The structural change of the heart muscle. It may thicken or lose its ability to expand, so its function weakens.
Lung diseases. In lung diseases, the concentration of oxygen in the blood is lower which intensifies the heart strain making it work harder, and that may lead to a right-sided heart failure manifested by edema in ankles or abdomen.
Kidney diseases. Kidneys are trying to compensate heart failure by saving the sodium in the blood which leads to fluid accumulation in the body. When the kidneys are performing low they make hormones which maintain the flow through them so they are continuing to save the sodium, making the accumulation of fluids in the body even more.
Symptoms of heart failure
Shortness of breath
It is caused by the stagnation of blood inside the lungs which then interfere with gas exchange. At the earlier stadiums, this is felt occasionally when a person is physically engaged, while in later stages it happens even in a
Coughing and wheezing
These symptoms come from the same problem like shortness of breath, due to blood congestion inside the lungs, but they could actually be the symptoms of bronchitis or asthma.
A compensating mechanism for sustaining
If the brain blood flow is inadequate or the blood pressure is, low dizziness might occur. Likewise, an irregular heartbeat or a sudden drop in a
You can feel very tired even after doing some minor activities and that worsens over time. This happens because muscles and other organs are not gaining the nutrition and oxygen they need. The problems with concentration and memory may develop over time.
Swelling in ankles
Swelling of the ankles occurs due to fluid accumulation, and it can spread to the rest of the leg and on the abdomen after. Patients should raise their legs, in order to reduce swelling by introducing less fluids in your organism and by using diuretics. The fluids from edema may return to bloodstream overnight and cause the onset of night urination.
Thirst and dry mouth
Those are common symptoms of heart failure. They may be induced by drugs taken to treat heart failure or from heart failure itself.
Sudden changes in weight
Sudden changes in weight may be found due to fluid stagnation. It is recommended to measure your weight every day and to report to your doctor if you notice them.
Heart failure classification
Heart failure is classified by NYHA scale of 4 stages based on symptom seriousness, and it involves symptoms and physical activity. Experts use this classification in clinical work.
Stage I: The patient has no physical activity restrictions. P
Stage II: Some physical activity restriction exists. The patient is feeling well while in a
Stage III: The patient has significant physical ability restriction. When in a
Stage IV: The slightest physical activity is making trouble to the patient. Heart failure symptoms are present even in a
To declare a heart failure diagnose a doctor has to consider:
- Full detailed medical history (personal and family medical history). By patient’s description of symptoms and by manifested signs of illness the doctor can suspect that the heart failure is presented. The drugs that patient is taking are needed to be acknowledged because many of them can lead to heart failure.
- Standard physical tests.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormal ECG waves are a usual sign of arrhythmia or left ventricle hypertrophy, but sometimes the electrical waves are normal.
- Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram can provide the information for blood pumping ability, structural or functional changes.
- Chest X-ray. With X-ray imaging, a doctor can say if there is a heart enlargement or fluid stagnation in the lungs.
- Blood tests. Full blood count, electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and most importantly B-type natriuretic peptide.
- Stress test. The heart is examined while the body is in exertion.Taking a drug or by walking / running on a treadmill will examine your body,
- Differential tests which exclude heart failure from other lung/kidney diseases.
Treatment of heart failure
The goal of heart failure treatment is to reduce the symptoms and signs of illness, as well as to reduce the number of hospital visits.
Non – pharmacological methods are set of methods that do not include using of medicine. They include physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol, vaccination.
There is no need to overwhelm yourself with physical activity at the beginning. After the diagnose you should avoid any strain, but after some time you can start slowly with some minor exercises or simply by walking more often. After a while, you can see how your heart and body are reacting to a new activity, and then you can increase your training a little bit. By increased physical activity your heart will not heal itself of course, but your other body muscles will generally have more ability to work so some of the symptoms should reduce.
The most important thing here is to remember that the more salt means more body fluids. So you should definitely lower your salt input. Patients should avoid bigger sized meals because they put an additional burden to an already weakened heart. Generally, obesity put an additional strain to your circulation, so losing weight, will make you feel better in general. Avoid those nasty fatty meals, and have some fruits and vegetables. Don’t eat so much red meat, and take some fish.
Tobacco smoking is bad for your health and that is a fact. Nicotine from cigarettes is acting as a vasoconstriction agent, making your blood vessels to narrow, and so on forcing your weakened heart to put even more effort for blood pumping. Carbon monoxide (CO) in your blood is taking a place from oxygen, so less of the oxygen can make it to peripheral tissues and their requirements are not being filled. Remember, it’s never too late to stop smoking!
Ingesting too much alcohol over time may induct the alcohol-related cardiomyopathy. In that case, all alcoholic drinks should be excluded from your diet. If your condition is not in a later stage you may drink one glass of beer or wine per day.
It is important for patients with heart failure to be vaccinated against the flu because respiratory infections may worsen your heart state. Vaccination should be done annually, just before the flu season.
Pharmacological measures include using: ACE inhibitors / AT1 antagonists, Diuretics, Beta-blockers, Digoxin
ACE inhibitors / AT1 antagonists
They have a main role in the treatment and prevention of heart failure in all of the condition stages. The effects of these drugs are manifested in circulation on a
Diuretics cause an increased ejection of sodium and water. They manage the shortness of breath and edema. Diuretics do not lower the mortality, but they’re good for reducing the symptoms.
Doctors always use them. At first in a lower dose, but over the time they make adjustment . With these drugs, the mortality is reduced notably (65%) because they regulate the arrhythmia. β blockers must be used on the dry heart when all of the excess fluids are eliminated. The reason is they lower the inotropic value (the force of heart muscle contraction).
Digoxin works as an inotropic agent, so it induces the contractility and it slows down the heartbeat pace. This drug does not lower the mortality, but it lowers the number of